How to calculate Return on Equity and its interpretation?

For the time being, people want to generate a promising return from the stock market. But before investing in a company, you should be aware of some parameters.

Among them, return on equity or in brief ROE is the most popular ratio to the investor, which is a favourite ratio of 'Warren Buffett'.

In a nutshell, ROE meaning in the stock market is how much profit a company makes from common shareholders equity. Often ROE is also called Return on common equity.

## ROE Definition

Return on equity or ROE is a profitability ratio that measures how efficiently a company uses its shareholders' equity capital to generate income.

ROE deals with only equity, so we only consider the equity shareholder fund and return will consist of funds that belong to the shareholders.

In other words, ROE is also called Return On Net Worth, which also reveals how efficiently management is using equity funds. Generally speaking higher ROE higher profit.

## How to Calculate Return On Equity?

The return on equity is calculated by dividing net profit by equity shareholders.

The ROE equation is used to compute equity share capital efficiency in a financial year and ROE can be computed quarterly or yearly.

Net profit is a company's total income minus its direct and indirect expenses and taxes over some time. This number would be recorded on the company's income statement.

Shareholders equity comprises share capital and reserve & surplus. This figure would be listed on the Balance sheet of a company.

## Return on Equity Formula

Return on equity can be calculated in the following equation

Return on equity = (Net Profit/Shareholders equity)

The ROE equation is used to measure the profitability of the company.

## ROE Calculation: Example

Let, it is ABC company. Here is some information about ABC company,

The balance sheet of ABC company as on 31.03.2019

Particular Amount (Rs.)
Non-current assets
Fixed assets 425,000
Long term investments 390,000
Total non-current assets 815,000
Current assets
Cash in hand 20,000
Bills receivable 50,000
Inventory 250,000
Prepaid expenses 100,000
Short term loans 200,000
Total current assets 620,000
Total assets 14,35,000
Equity
Share capital 600,000
Reserve 330,000
Total equity 930,000
Non-current liabilities
Debentures 200,000
Long-term loans 150,000
Total non-current liabilities 350,000
Current liabilities
Bills payable 50,000
Overdraft 100,000
Short-term loans 5,000
Total current liabilities 155,000
Total equity and liabilities 14,35,000

Statement of profit and loss statement for the year ended on 31.03.2019

Particular Amount
Revenue 10,00,000
Others Income 500,000
Total Income 15,00,000
Expenses
Salaries 300,000
Finance Cost 150,000
Utilities 90,000
Inventory 210,000
Total Expenses 750,000
EBT 750,000
Tax @ 30% 225,000
Net Profit 525,000

Now, Return on Equity = (525000 / 930000)

Return on Equity = 0.56 or 56%

It means ABC company generated Rs 0.56 profit for every Rs 1 equity shareholder. Therefore, stock an ROE of 56%.

The ABC company may have taken a high level of obligation and investors should avert this company.

## Using ROE to Estimate Growth Rates

Despite a few challenges, the return of equity ratio is deemed to be a beneficial way to evaluate the stock growth rate and the rate of dividends.

Generally, an organization's outcome is subtracted by its retention ratio for its growth ratio.

The retention ratio is the proportion of net earnings that is retained or reinvested by funding for enriching future expansion.

## Return on equity and sustainable growth rate

The return on equity helps to examine a company's sustainable growth rate. Investors can use a company’s sustainable growth rate to identify stocks of a company and infer the riskiness of the company, thus the proficiency of the stocks to retain and accumulate its value.

A stock that is growing at a relatively slow pace can be glimpsed as undervalued the market or striving financially pertained to its sustainable rate.

Furthermore, an organization that exceeds its sustainable growth potential also more mature projects a complicated or defective impression in the market. Investors can also estimate the company's dividend growth rate.

## How does the effect of leverage on ROE?

Let, PQR ltd is a company.

Where,

Shareholders fund = Rs 1000 crore

Debt = Rs 500 crore

And the company earns a profit of Rs 350 or more out of which it has to pay Rs 50 crore in the rest on loan.

Therefore profit of the company will be around Rs 300 crore after paying in the rest of the loan.

ROE = 30%

Another, XYZ ltd is a company. Where,

Share capital = Rs 500 crore

Debt = 1000 crore

Total interest has to be of aid on loan Rs 100 crore. Profit will be the same, Rs 350 crore.

After pay, the ing interest on the loan profit of the company will be Rs 250 crore

ROE = 50%

In this way, XYZ Ltd's ROE is more attractive than PQR Ltd. XYZ ltd increases its profitability ratios.

Company PQR Ltd provided an ROE of 30% while XYZ ltd provided an ROE of 50%

Before reaching any conclusion, we should not forget the Rs 1000 crore loan taken by XYZ ltd, which added to the jeopardy for the investors as well analysts.

XYZ Ltd has higher ROE, so investors shouldn't be solely impressed by it because the company has arrived at it with a high level of risk and if the business didn't do well. As an investor, analyse carefully and be very careful.

## ROE vs. Return on Invested Capital

Return on equity assistance investors in how much profit a company earns on its shareholder's equity.

While return on invested capital helps investors to evaluate a company's efficiency at using its capital.

After paying a dividend, increases the company's return on equity. Since there is no change in return on invested capital.

The growth of a company plays a crucial role in assessing its profitability. Every investor should overhaul every single parameter before, investing in a stock.

Return on equity reveals how well a company utilised its shareholder's equity. Whereas how reasonably a company utilizes available capital to generate more capital.

## What is the difference between ROA and ROE?

Return on equity and return on assets are profitability ratio and also measures of how a company efficiently uses its resources.

Generally, return on equity only deals with the company's equity capital and ROE doesn't contain any kind of liabilities.

Similarly, the return on assets gauges how the company uses its assets and ROA takes into account debts.

However, both ROA and ROE ratio estimate for getting various information about the company and donate insight into how well a company conducts as compared to its rivals.

## What are the limitations of Return on Equity?

However, return on equity is one of the most important ratios while examining the company. Return on equity also has some limitations.

A high return on equity may not always be positive. A bloated ROE may imply numerous issues - such as unreasonable debts, poor profits.

A negative return on equity due to the negative shareholder's equity or net loss does not substantiate a beneficial analysis of a company’s ability.

Also, the return on equity can not be used to distinguish companies with favourable ROE.

## Return on Equity interpretation

ROE measures management's aptitude to generate revenue from the equity fund. ROE shows the changing profitability scenario for the shareholders.

An increasing ROE over time can mean a company is good at generating shareholder value without requiring as much capital.

So, increasing  ROE is favoured to the investors. Falling ROE can suggest management is making poor decisions on reinvesting capital in unproductive assets.

If the company pays a dividend will boost ROE because when a company pays dividends, its reserves and surplus are reduced and returns are boosted due to a reduced denominator.

Even a high level of debt boosts ROE. So, investors should not be fooled by high ROE. Generally, ROE of more than 30% is the reasonable criteria.

As an investor, compare companies within the same industry and better to find out a trend of the past five years which is helpful for the investors because they can know the past performance of the company. Generally, investors always prefer higher ROE than lower.

## Conclusion

1. Invest in companies with higher ROE. Generally, higher ROE significance is more defence to the investors.

2. Don't be sure of one single parameter. Use multiple parameters.

3. Avoid companies with a high obligation. It can burn all the money.